Hangeland, 32, is the latest confirmed departure from Craven Cottage as manager Felix Magath prepares for life in the Sky Bet Championship.
Midfielders Damien Duff and Steve Sidwell have been released, along with Giorgos Karagounis, Mahamadou Diarra and John Arne Riise.
Hangeland joined from FC Copenhagen in January 2008 and made 272 appearances for Fulham, including their run to the 2010 UEFA Europa League final under Roy Hodgson
The veteran defender was still under contract having agreed a two-year extension in 2013 and as club captain felt there should have been more dialogue
"Today I received the news that Fulham Football Club have chosen to terminate my contract with immediate effect," he said in a statement released his representative Jon Morland
"I was told of this decision via e-mail, without anyone from the club having met me beforehand to discuss my contract or my future with the club
"After six-and-a-half years of hard work and loyalty, and having served the last few years as captain, I am immensely disappointed at how this was handled."
Hangeland added: "I would like to thank the amazing Fulham fans as these last few years have been the best of my football career
It was a source of pride to wear the white shirt at Craven Cottage
"I believe I still have much to offer as a footballer and look forward to the next chapter in my career."
Source : PA