The Switzerland defender moves to Craven Cottage on a free transfer after the expiry of his contract at Arsenal.
And he told the club's website, fulhamfc.com: "I very much hope that I can contribute over the next few seasons and that the club goes on to achieve more success."
He added: "I'm delighted that I am joining the club during the most successful period in its history.
"I will be looking forward to meeting up with my new team-mates and of course, Roy Hodgson, a manager I respect very much, shortly after the World Cup."
The imposing 25-year-old will add to Hodgson's options at the heart of a defence already shorn of Chris Smalling this summer, while there is also speculation surrounding the future of Brede Hangeland - who has been linked with a move in the opposite direction, to the Gunners.
Senderos was with Arsenal for seven years after joining from Servette in 2003 but fell out of favour and has had loan spells at AC Milan and then Everton in the last two seasons - though the 25-year-old has remained a permanent fixture in his national side.
He was also part of the Swiss defence which did not concede a goal in the 2006 World Cup, played every minute of their Euro 2008 campaign on home soil and scored twice against Luxembourg as he helped his country reach this summer's World Cup in South Africa.
Hodgson said: "Philippe is a player that I have admired for a very long time, since he captained Switzerland to the UEFA Under-17 Championship in 2002.
"He is a strong defender who has great aerial presence at both ends of the field and has a superb work ethic, which is a vital component for any team's success. I am very much looking forward to working with Philippe next season."